As the Turing Centre describes, the official verdict was that Turing had died from self-administered suicide cyanide poisoning, with a half-eaten apple sitting on his bedside table presumably being the vehicle with which he had poisoned himself. Turing took the latter option. However, some experts have questioned the suicide narrative, pointing out that his death occurred more than a year after the procedure ended, and that Peter Hilton, a friend of Turing, described Turing's attitude throughout as an "amused fortitude.
He told the BBC that "we have in modern times been recreating the narrative of Turing's life, and we have recreated him as an unhappy young man who committed suicide. But the evidence is not there.
Alan Turing and the Apple logo
Professor Copeland's theory for the perceived enigma is that Alan Turing died accidentally. Without excusing any of the abuse which Turing had suffered, Professor Copeland follows an explanation hinted at by Turing's mother, that Turing had been experimenting with cyanide, specifically electrolyzing solutions from it.
The experiment was connected to a light socket, which had shocked Turing during one of his experiments. Such carelessness, Professor Copeland argues, could have led to Turing accidentally getting some cyanide on the apple, or even inhaling evaporated cyanide by mistake.
However, yet more others, such as the production team behind the dramatized documentary Codebreakermaintain that even with Professor Copeland's points in mind, suicide seems the most probable interpretation.
What Does the Apple Logo Stand For?
All Rights Reserved.I enjoy writing on a wide range of topics including science, history, social issues and much more. If in the mids the term "apple" was mentioned without further context everybody would have thought of a fruit. Forty years on just as likely a smartphone or electronic device comes to mind.
Founded in Apple Inc. The company enjoys dedication and brand-loyalty which very few companies have achieved. But what is the meaning of its iconic logo? Apple's former headquarters at 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino. A number of stories have cropped up over the years and speculation has run deep as Apple has kept silent on the matter.
This has no doubt favored the manyfold myths and associations with the Apple logo. The image of an apple itself is one of the most potent symbols in Western culture: the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil though the Bible does not specify the fruit is an applethe discovery of gravity by Newton, the apple in stories like Snow White or Wilhelm Tell or in expressions like Big Apple, an apple a day or as American as apple pie, etc.
Before the logo was the company name. In the early days of IT, companies and computers had much more technical names. Calling a startup after a fruit was quite unusual. Walter Isaacson states in his biography about Jobs that Steve came up with the company's name while being on a diet of fruits and vegetables. And he would go up and work there for a few months before returning to the Bay Area.
Maybe it had some other meaning to him. Maybe the idea just occurred based upon Apple Records. He had been a musical person like many technical people are. It might have sounded good partly because of that connotation.
Apple Corps was the Beatles' record label and both Jobs and Wozniak were fans though they later had a lawsuit. The first company logo: rather complex than simple and clear. The first Apple logo was designed by co-founder Ronald Wayne. Ron's logo, drawn with pen and ink, depicted Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree with a poem around and a ribbon banner ornamenting the picture frame citing the company name "Apple Computer Co".
This first prototype logo was almost immediately replaced by the famous 'rainbow apple'.Sker hotel game walkthrough
The design by Ron Wayne was far too complex to serve as a company logo and when getting out the Apple II in Jobs realized it would not do. Therefore in January the advertising agency Regis McKenna was commissioned with the design of a new logo. According to their director of art, Rob Janoff, who designed the new logo the only directive from Jobs was to avoid making it cute. Janoff presented two versions of the new logo: an apple, one with bite and one without.
Though he feared the one with the bite would look too cute, Jobs opted for the version with byte as it definitely had more personality. The new and first official logo looked like a real logo and simply consisted of a rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it.
It would be Apple's official logo for the next two decades from April until August 26, See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Computer geeks have often regarded the rainbow logo as a secret tribute to Alan Turing. Turing was a mathematical genius who pioneered research into artificial intelligence and laid the foundations for the modern-computer.
He also created the enigma machine, basically the first super computer, thereby unlocking German wartime codes and abbreviating WWII. The Normandy landings made copious use of intelligence gleaned by his methods.
Humiliated by estrogen injections intended to cure his homosexuality and facing jail for gross indecency, Turing died in obscurity on June 7, committing suicide according to some it was murder by biting into an apple laced with cyanide.
Although intriguing, the Turing association can hardly be considered official history as the Apple headquarter has been non-committal and Jobs once said he only wished the explanation to be true.Alan Turing He is one of the most brilliant and, at the same time, most punished characters in our history. Considered one of the fathers of modern computing, without his scientific contributions in the field of mathematics, cryptology or computing, we would hardly have reached the degree of technological development that we have today.
If you want to know what the bases of this theory are and what is true in it, keep reading. Defining what Alan Turing did with one word is impossible.
He was primarily a mathematician, but also a physicist, cryptographer, biologist, philosopher, and even a marathon athlete. Born in London inhe is popularly known for his work with the British Army to crack the codes that the Nazis used during World War II for their communications via the Enigma machine.
His work allowed for nothing less than victory for the allies in the conflict, yet his sexual orientation ostracized him for decades. But their contribution does not stop there.
All great logos, the most recognizable and universal, have a great story behind them, and most of them are related to pure logic. This is the case, for example, of the PokerStars pike, which uses a very recognizable symbol that is quickly associated with the world of poker; according the general rulesall suits have the same value, but the ace of spades has always been considered the most important card in the deck. On some occasions, however, the explanation behind the logos is much more strange and has more of a sentimental value than a practical one.
That is the case of the Twitter logo. One of the best basketball players in history, he is also a symbol of the Boston Celtics, of which Biz Stone, co-founder of Twitter, is a huge fan. Seeing the original apple in the Apple logo, with its bite and the colors of the rainbow, some thought that, as in the case of Stone and Bird, it was a tribute.
Traditionally, the apple is related to intelligence and the ability to think on another level, two qualities that Turing did not lack. In fact, the first Apple logo, before Steve Jobs had to turn to Rob Janoff, was a detailed drawing of a tree with an apple and a man underneath that represented Newton and that made reference to the famous anecdote that originated the theory of the Law of Gravity — and that never happened.
Impossible to reproduce on a large scale, Jobs commissioned a new logo from the agency where Janoff worked, and he was the author of that first multicolored apple that seems to speak directly to Turing and his tragic end. He was given a choice between prison and chemical castration, and Turing chose the latter. Two years later, at 41 years of age, he took his life by biting a poisoned apple — or at least that is the official version, there are several theories about it.
At the University of Manchester, where he developed his Turing machine, there is a statue of the scientist sitting on a bench and holding a bitten apple.
The multicolored flag that we now associate with the claims of the LGTBI collective was already used at the end of the 70s by various countercultural movements, however, it was not widely known until That is a year after Janoff designed the logo, so it is highly unlikely that he did not even know of its existence.
According to Janoff himself, who only kept the apple of the original design, the color of the rainbow, which was recently thought about recovering, is because he wanted to highlight the fact that the Apple II computer was the first with a color screen. He added the bite for a matter of scale, because that way it was more noticeable that it was an apple and not a cherry or other fruit.
It would have been nice if the Apple logo was a tribute to Turing, although it is understandable that it was not.For a time he led Hut 8the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphersincluding improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlanticand in so doing helped win the war.
The Automatic Computing Engine was one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. InTuring joined Max Newman 's Computing Machine Laboratoryat the Victoria University of Manchesterwhere he helped develop the Manchester computers  and became interested in mathematical biology.
He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis  and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov—Zhabotinsky reactionfirst observed in the s. Turing was prosecuted in for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment of had mandated that "gross indecency" was a criminal offence in the UK. He accepted chemical castration treatment, with DESas an alternative to prison.Sheetz distribution center careers
Turing died in16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is also consistent with accidental poisoning.
Infollowing an Internet campaignBritish Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in The " Alan Turing law " is now an informal term for a law in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts.
John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants that had been based in the Netherlands and included a baronet. However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale London, where Alan Turing was born on 23 Juneas recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth,   later the Colonnade Hotel.
Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years, his parents travelled between Hastings in the United Kingdom  and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. Very early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was later to display prominently.
The location is also marked with a blue plaque. The headmistress recognised his talent early on, as did many of his subsequent teachers.
Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope he will not fall between two stools. If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialisthe is wasting his time at a public school". Inaged 16, Turing encountered Albert Einstein 's work; not only did he grasp it, but it is possible that he managed to deduce Einstein's questioning of Newton's laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit.
At Sherborne, Turing formed a significant friendship with fellow pupil Christopher Collan Morcom 13 July — 13 February who has been described as Turing's "first love". Their relationship provided inspiration in Turing's future endeavours, but it was cut short by Morcom's death, in Februaryfrom complications of bovine tuberculosiscontracted after drinking infected cow's milk some years previously.
The event caused Turing great sorrow.A number of stories have cropped up over the years to explain the origin of the Apple logo design. Story highlights Holden Frith says one story recounts how the Apple logo was a tribute to Alan Turing "Sadly, the truth is rarely as simple, or beautiful, as we would like," he writes Apple logo artist Rob Janoff is charmed by the story but was unaware of the association Frith: More than most, Steve Jobs appreciated the value of a beautiful story.
If beauty is indeed truth, as John Keats claimed, then this story ought to be true: The logo on the back of your iPhone or Mac is a tribute to Alan Turing, the man who laid the foundations for the modern-day computer, pioneered research into artificial intelligence and unlocked German wartime codes.
His death, a decade after the end of the war, provides the link with Apple. Unrecognized for his work, facing jail for gross indecency and humiliated by estrogen injections intended to 'cure' his homosexuality, he bit into an apple he had laced with cyanide.
He died in obscurity on June 7,10 years and a day after the Normandy landings, which made copious use of intelligence gleaned by his methods. And so, the story goes, when two Stanford entrepreneurs were looking for a logo for their brand new computer company, they remembered Turing and his contribution to their field. They chose an apple -- not a complete apple, but one with a bite taken out of it.Apple Logo, The True Story
Sadly, the truth is rarely as simple, or beautiful, as we would like. I first researched this story in and was assured by someone at Apple that it was indeed true. The article struck a chord and several people got in touch to say how pleased or touched they were to hear the story. A few years later I mentioned it to another Apple employee, who immediately said that he thought it was a myth.
It may have started around the time of the film about the Bletchley Park code breakers, Enigma, or it may have just resurfaced then. He checked with Apple headquarters, and although they were non-committal, it was clear that that Turing story was not official Apple history.
More Videos Steve Jobs leaves lasting legacy A look back at the life of Steve Jobs Odd Jobs tributes Other theories were advanced. The apple represented knowledge, as in the biblical story of Adam and Eve, or referenced the falling fruit that led Sir Isaac Newton to the concept of gravity. Supporters of the latter theory note the name of Apple's handheld PDA, the Newton, but that was more than a decade after the creation of the logo.
Sadly, the evidence now points in a more prosaic direction. In a interview with CreativeBitsRob Janoff, the man who drew the logo, reflected on the theories about his work.Prefer conjugation french passe compose
He dismisses Sir Isaac or the Bible as source material and, while he says he is charmed by the links with the Turing story, he says he was unaware of them at the time. Janoff says that he received no specific brief from Steve Jobs, and although he's hazy about how he settled on the simple outline of an apple, the reason for the bite is crystal clear: it's there for scale, he says, so that a small Apple logo still looks like an apple and not a cherry.
It wasn't long before Janoff discovered the first happy coincidence of his design, when a colleague told him that "bytes" were the foundation stones of computing. The more romantic myth-making would follow soon behind. I was disappointed when the Turing story was first cast into doubt, but grew to enjoy the uncertainty. Limbo seemed a fitting, even poetic state, for the tale of a man who lived in the shadows.
Even his tribute was now floating between life and death, like Snow White after she swallowed her own mythical apple.Distressor settings for bass
I hope that a similar respect for beauty over cold, hard fact lay behind Steve Jobs' silence on the matter. He could have dismissed the creation myths inspired by his company, but he chose not to. More than most, he appreciated the value of a beautiful story.After saving England in World War II by cracking the Nazi U-boat code, he was found guilty of gross indecency for a homosexual relationship.
He chose chemical castration over imprisonment as his punishment. Two years later, Turing was found poisoned near a cyanide-laced apple with a bite taken from it.
If you are interested to learn more about partnering for the world premiere, please click here to send an inquiry. This piece is relevant today not only for restoring Turing to our collective memory, but also because the institutionalized homophobic attitudes faced by Turing continue to threaten the lives of gay men and women across the globe. In fact, this opera is not merely about homophobia, it is about prejudice. This opera celebrates the power of memory, creativity, and the potential within us all to live fully and truly.
CHEN has been the recipient of many prestigious awards and commissions. Chen balances despair and humor. Kernis, composer. He was recently an Artist in Residence at Pace University, where he taught and led a staged reading workshop of his play Bad Blood. David also writes, directs, edits and stars in Zombie Hideawaya webisodic series, as well as R ev. The Life and Death s of Alan Turing in development. Chen and David Simpatico.We probably see the Apple logo around 30 times a day - especially if you walk past a coffee shop on your way to work.
It turns out — quite a lot. And nothing. Let me explain…. The first Apple logo is a bit shite. That never even happened anyway. And finally — the rainbows. What does a rainbow apple with a bite taken out of it have to do with Alan Turing? Well, for anyone who has done any research on him in the past, or has visited his statue in Sackville Gardens — quite a lot.
His work at Bletchley Park cracking the Enigma Code assured our eventual victory over Nazi Germany and his tireless work with the earliest computing machines pretty much cemented Alan as a true science pioneer and a national hero. Although Turing was briefly engaged to a woman, he was, in fact, homosexual — something which was shamefully illegal in the UK at the time.
He chose the latter. Two years later inTuring committed suicide by cyanide poisoning, having been found with a half-eaten apple next to his bed. His statue in Sackville Gardens is depicted with Turing holding an apple in his hand — could this be a reference to the fruit being a traditional symbol of education and learning, his suicide or both?
Rob Janoff. Subscribe to our Newsletter Email address. Also send me exclusive events and news from our favourite venues and brands.
- Fasco inducer motor cross reference
- 49 500 won berapa rupiah
- Honda x adv pedane off road
- Radix number system pdf
- Hf transceiver for sale
- Quanto costa attivare utenza enel
- Reviews leonardo hotel edinburgh
- Purchasing power parity upsc
- Ian mckinnon net worth
- Balaceras en reynosa tamaulipas 2020
- Consciousness and cognition guide for authors
- Cre symptoms and prevention
- Saltstack vs ansible reddit
- Antagonist in a story definition
- Onus meaning in banking
- Commando indian movie actors
- Parimatch download app tz
- Puzzle platformer games switch
- Ilive dvd player codes
- Technique pronunciation in english
- Sv 98 darmstadt fanshop
- 5775 general washington dr